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UNITED STATES COMMISSION OF FISH ANIY FISHERIES, Lae o> sh

faa f .

am ner oo eee Pee Det Se

REPORT

OF

THE COMMISSIONER

FOR

sl Ms Wee Ao

A.—INQUIRY RESPECTING FOOD-FISHES AND THE FISHING GROUNDS.

B.—PROPAGATION OF FOOD-FISHES.

WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1889. S. Mis. 90——1

Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), That the report of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for the year 1886 be printed; and that there be printed 11,000 extra copies, of which 3,000 shall be for the use of the Senate, 6,000 for the use of the House of Representatives, 1,500 for the use of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, and 500 for sale by the Public Printer, under such regula- tions as the Joint Committee on Printing may prescribe, at a price equal to the additional cost of publication and 10 per cent. thereto thereon added, the illustrations to be obtained by the Public Printer, under the direction of the Joint Committee on Printing.

Agreed to by the Senate February 26, 1887.

Agreed to by the House March 2, 1887.

It

298

CONTENTS.

I.—REPORT OF THE COMMISSLONER,

1. INTRODUCTORY NOTE. .----..----------- - 2-205 222s ee cee e een nee ene ne Bie) IR ITOI ICO

. INQUIRY RESPECTING FOOD-FISHES AND THE FISHING GROUNDS ..---------------------+

A.—Field work.--... SRS ogee ee OS INE aE Rane ne bop op eo IO DOH EEE renr ead vee pe Sj aetis- B.—Special investigations.......-------- Ap ara seek kero es ca iceaee COPS pSSPER ac cIe C.— Preparation of reports, etc. ----.-..--+---2-- -252-- <5 2252 25-552 serene cene es eee ean D.—Proposed extension of the inquiry to the Pacific coast. .-..-..--.--.----+------+---

. INQUIRY RESPECTING THE FISHERIES....---...-------------------- 2-2 sree eee eee teens

AGOGO ane NEL WORK. ee ar o< 24am alee) Wan name 5 soles hie sein onle ie eini= ease nie imine sininie PE nnhemachereliishery Gmrin® 1a8O. soca ce am nee alasie ae eee ee tetera einer ina (Cpa SING fla Ne eC Or 7 GG peelsece OR Se Slee See oO eee DER SES oe HOSE aa Senagm eee scr ron-

. FISHERY RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATFS WITH CANADA..-----.----- ---------2e000-

Information furnished the Secretary of the Treasury by the Commissioner.-.-....-.--

. PROPAGATION OF FOOD-FISHES..---------------- +--+ ++ eee ee pene ee eee ee eee eee eee eee

PPS TEENIE OG fa ttS 1) AO N@ LES 2). cic) nn male ncnes aleicaia scincine @ nie = = oo dS few no meteeia selene Notes on the species propagated and distributed .............----------------------+---- TEAST (NETS GI aoe neee conn se BESS en onors Js SsnOce Ea eeaeeesere opslacaeaiene es The Malibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) ...--------------------+-e2000------ Te attest (GUGUS MOTTRUA) = anna =n ann me mmc a a,c aa ainjs soa qin =< 6 sien Sielia Mie VWeaelkerel (Scomber Scomurus) can osmennccns-5oseccn=-deeeeeeecsiceenice Whe Black Bass (Micropterus dolonvici)....--.---2---2--0 2-222 eee es coe ees The Bed-eye (Ambloplites rupestris) ..-.-------- ----------------- ee rens wenees PeCIRes MMR ES ER CLICDOTIIG JLUDOSUS) 02a meinen eis se een eicaala sa am ee alee olin alae The White Perch (Roccus americanus) ....-------------------2 2220+ cence The Rockfish or Striped Hbass (Roccus lineatus).-----.----------------- Whe Muelle (OsmMerus MOTKAL) <<a a.ejajooejcna, nan anancicecitedas ose alae soe aatrayees ate The Whitefish (Corcgonus clupetformis)..-.----------- nee ene n ne nnn e eens The Dwarf Whitefish (Coregonus albula). .--..-----.--------+------+---+-- m. The Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).......--..-------+---------+eseees nm. Che Saibline (Salvciiniws alpinus)... --5.-- 2. 2-2cc-0-oe ce cece sccesaseneees == o. Whe Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush)..----------------+ +--+ eee eee p. The Rainbow Trout (Salmo irideus).......-.--. 22-200 2-22 eee ee ee eee q. The Brown Trout (Salmo fario) ............-----0----2- 2-222 c eres ee eee nee r 8 t

“FS se STaws asses

The Loch Leven Trout (Salmo levenensis)......--..---------2---22+------ The Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). ..-------------..s-000 eee ee eee eens Whe Landlocked Saklmom (Salmo salar var. scbago)---.-------+----+-+---+ u. Khe Shad (Clupea sapidissima). ....--.----- -nnns--cenp cece ne eceanncenceece Go) Re C aay (Oy prINU8 CORD IO) «an oda nm a atin anid oleae bens sHiedac simian tejnrs sae aece w. The Goldfish (Carassius @1ratus) ...0c0 couec cenececnnnvacnceccccecmanccenn'= ee EO. CUNO MEU OMLVISCH) xara. <reics ais ssn ane ane kw seca ale scariest eiesniciaene y. Whe Lobster (Homarus americanus). .....s'c-ccccccsecnsccecccece ene seetns? . z Whe Oyster (Ostrea virginica) .....-.-..--. Becca tet as aaa anealcenteusias wees

I

Page. xX

x

x XIV ENaVi xXV XVI XVI SOV LE DE D<

XXI XI

XXVII XXVII XXVIII XXVIIT XXVIIT XXIX XXX XXX XXX XXX XxX XXX XXXI XXXII

XXXII XXXIT XXXIITI XXXITE XXXIV

XXXVI

XXXVI XXXVIIT XXXVIII XXXVIII

XXXIX

IV CONTENTS. .

Page. 6. THE STATIONS OF THE FISH COMMISSION. .... «---2.-2--2+seseee eee ne cone eee neeee ceneee XXXIX Avra PIT O BUATIONS ..= 6 =oiclviewa catinc ema emcee yum ietle aldip se »:s's Dp Wriwlete Cimieie GM oes Maisie a anaes XXXIX SLOUCEHLGN, MARS: 2a sublicense kc bret eevee nene abe any naa os oie Stee oats koa een xXXxXxIxX WGC Mr EROL. MASS). sna cect nue vee ae amees \eabes shone Gheeat ca beien spe aaa ne eee oka Lox Sarit Crome, MCs cc scccee sane eens curivcdper aw chee vsiawmebnOnacasae ad a AN ee a oe Ver B.—Stations for propagation of the Salmonid@ ....... 2... 22-22. enn cc ccemeee ees ecnces XL Grand Lake Stream and Bucksport; Moe. {22-2200 5. ecen se ces - arc see- eee eeeeeeee ne xL Wold' Spring, Harbor, Ne Yoo oo. snnanee was enn ove mine eee ene ne eee XLI Wytheville, Va wpe cn cece err ee ete eee eee eee eee eee eee eee ee B41 iE Worthville and Alpena, Mich) .-<----.<540 <.2. <eesmacensine soma -eneinsiee ceneeseewesees XLy MTEC Ou Rivers Cab seesaw oe emer eee wm je la oe he a alle ert et ae pis 1g C.—Stations for propagation of shad.....--..--------0- +2022 eee ee eee ee eee eee eee eens a Battery Island, Md --....-2------2-ecccns ceen en cnc enn cee ene nec ee nn ecw e cer ccncns Le Washington, D.C .-.-... 2202 een ene eee ee cee ne cece eee ee cen cee ee eee nent eens XLII Fort Washington, Md .......--.cccees cose ne cnn e ene eens eee ee none es seen ee nne XLIl Melawate River += sc ca-ncksae ep once wees J aaisen cle aisine Rie's nie ondbienie acne =/- =e XLIL D.—Stations for propagation Of Cap ..---- ---nes -ce eee eee ne nee ee eee es eee wen eeeeene XLIIT Washington, D.C... 2.5222 canoe cece eee ne eee ene n enna een ac nnsswensaeespsass XLII E.—New hatching stations proposed......-....----22---+--- see eee coer nese neon nne- XLUI AE Daluthy, Minn so 22 oes! Sa cle-latasanigeblen baad aes atiald elem sale > a epirin sn sola alee XLII Qn the Clackamas River, Orefon. --.2-- ..- 202000 sae wce mocenemonensecesnedenceenaes XLIV 7. THE VESSELS OF THE FISH COMMISSION. .....---------e20-0 eo oe enn nee enn seer ene n ene XLV A—The steamer Albatross. 2. 2a. 50 ne ncneccmesisvncd onc me ate: selene genes =e snes new XLV YG ISUCATIOD TVR ENON 3 annonces ene ainsi oe (daee ie <= iene ine eee ~~ XLVI C——Uhe steamer Halcyon. 2-5. saosin c nena nolem ie sehen meee nina amie ms oilo nea aie XLVI D.—The schooner Grampus. --.-.-- = 20206 score e cows ccccne no + sees seceneenn acs esensusane XLVII Assignments of naval officers .--.----. 2. .22. 20-2 ener e eee eee ence een ene eeeeenee XLVII 8. COURTESIES AND ASSISTANCE RECEIVED BY THE Fist! COMMISSION ..-..--.--.---------- XLVIII A.—From the United States Government... .. 2.2002. - 222-00 ceesee ve cse ces ennecescnnas XLVUI B.—From railroad companies of the United States -.....---..------------2e-een- sane ee XLIX C.—From steam-ship companies... 2-65 case cnc en cece cena sere cess seams sine aeeeeees L D.—From foreign governments. -....--.----.------220+ 222 -- 2 eee ener eee nen e ewe e ee snens L 9. COURTESIES AND ASSISTANCE RENDERED BY THE FIsH COMMISSION -..--.-...-.--------- LI A.—To foreign countries .-.--. Basan Sao paps bacorsoca Herrin teeoeaacr Seibert Se LI Bia Tp OUNSrS seer Stele = olen an ciel = alate lela ow ee rays emis nie Uc ml aimel alee (9) mins nie Smt eos ime le a le LII 10. PUBLIC EXHIBITIONS OF THE METHODS AND RESULTS OF THE COMMISSION........-.---- LIL AH Mouiswille, Kay, cp ois. nin occ tein wae eee sme Site a wel iminla mie ls aim minieiw nw n= latel aici olsia nt tere LII AG in coln) NODE» sac. onicin a /annminn see sn ce Omainia Dalen la eases eawees se shea sae saa eee LIIL At Chicago, Ill ...... 2-220 ee nee cone ee een cnn i rete cence ern e ence sens cance scaece LIII At Wilmington, Del........2-----0- 20-0 ee 2 cee nnn ee ce een eens cen nee seer ceeces LIII 11. VISITS FROM REPRESENTATIVES OF FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS. ....-..------2---------00e-e LIL Mr, Kadznutka Ito, of Japan ..--. 22... 2s eee nnn scenes cnn nnn omnes cece enn men me sense LIII

Dr Milip Drybom, of Sweden... ce. ee osc cee eelaeelere =m wasn sear ee LIM © 12; DEATHS DURING THR YEAR. 000.06 sen ccncen cecnwalnceube sounescesenssewseaensens euepele LIL Notice of Capt. Hubbard C. Chester... 2.22 cj cece cee ccenecnns sennenenne a= esam=neane LIIL Notice of Capt. Nathaniel E. Atwood ....-. 2.0000 scececscenne seen nen cce een eenes cennseee LIV 13. PUBLICATIONS BY THM FisH COMMISSION DURING 1886 .........-- Soda sei a ie eee LIV VAMNUAL LEPOTtS ..- 22 woe ca ccwnae cen ns ceweemeccesansemswenncnsceccsecns+ceisicnsomnsn=ain LIV oy Quarto Teports -.. 2-2 on ose nce ewe newer see seen es wep mmem nee wes en ene ser = tens ensnsnwaeme Liv; MI IMGEAN oc cido wt so sde ans ees vccwsteenab shane peer ene en Mermnpe acta a dine a7 ie LV : PAMPMICES - 2. eee ence ee ctemmnneenenes aeons naeenernesenhic~ asin ewns'=-n <= cee anan LV _ DIGEST OF THE APPENDICES WHICH ACCOMPANY THIS REPORT ...-.....-22--+2seeeeseee LVI * eth Tho Rahorion s. n.,0cnn0Ledesenvasaapsdatceaso esha d duew eye chet ool i LVI B.—Scientific investigation .......--20-sccccccencnsscnewscces cen cn ccesesecce sounus LVI C.—Fish-culture ......-. Shire wcieree xe-oee swid eine mace nnn See wb OCS a's n= a Oe LVII «D.—Reports of vessels and stations ..-.....---222---eeee ene e ene ence ene nee ener ne LVII

1 —MABCCHANCOUG) <cverwonswdande iene udsvasieemenan Lud iSanicneey = ChkpntRiana adele LVII

SS eee eEEOeeEEeEeEeEeeeeEeEeEeEeEeeE

eo =

CONTENTS. Vv

II.—LIST OF PAPERS IN THE APPENDICES.

A.—THE FISHERIES. Page. I. Baird. THE SEA FISHERIES OF EASTERN NortH AMERICA. By Spencerl. Baird. SPECI AMA Axes ein wim aima mic we mya alas eam) a Slam te eee bla ate, elern Sate Slate Om a eeiale Slam nba 3

B.—SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION.

Il. Jordan and Goss. A REVIEW OF THE FLOUNDERS AND SOLES (PLEURONECTID@)

OF AMERICA AND Eurorr. By David Starr Jordan and David Kop Goss. Nine

Plates Speci OSX es aaa s oe wees ecloceiees eae mat amen eiainis ae temic iote ete a eitole 225 Ill. Jordan and Eigenmann. <A REVIEW OF THE SCILHNIDZ OF AMERICA AND

Eurore. By David Starr Jordan and Carl H. Kigenmann. Four plates. Special

FES C1 Rate ie ae ae et ac ae os ms ees he eye re Seca oC el St har eteimnee erate tareeataaorerene 343 IV. Lintom. NOTES ON ENTOZOA OF MARINE FISHES OF NEW ENGLAND, WITH DESCRIP- TIONS OF SEVERAL NEW SPECIES. By Edwin Linton. Six plates. Special index... 453 V. Fewkes. REPORT ON THE MEDUSM COLLECTED BY THE U. 8. FISH COMMISSION STEAMER ALBATROSS IN THE REGION OF THE GULF STREAM, IN 1885-’86. By J. Walternowkes, One plate: Special index 22---©.-- 3.2. os acc nn. vata smlisemiomlelssin= 513 C.—FISH-CULTURE. VI. Bettoni and Vinciguerra. ON THE FISH-CULTURAL ESTABLISHMENTS OF CEN- TRAL Evurore. By Eugenio Bettoni and Decio Vinciguerra. Special index..-.... 539

D.—REPORTS OF VESSELS AND STATIONS.

VII. Tanner. REPORT ON THE WORK OF THE U. 8. FISH COMMISSION STEAMER ALBA- TROSS FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1886. By Lieut.-Commander Z. L, Tanner, U.S. Navy, commanding. Ten plates. Special index.................-. 605 VIL. Smith. REPORT OF OPERATIONS OF THE U. 8. FISH COMMISSION STEAMER FIsH HAWK FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1886. By Mate James A. Smith, U8.

aviv COURIVAN CD 0 area aya as > Sein 2 iar ciaane swokidas meee essa delsac semen aeieeeeicaaaes 693 Ix. REPORT ON THE OPERATIONS OF THE STEAMER HALCYON FOR THE YEAR END- CEO CHEMEUR OL, Gowen cca aeee aoe aaa ws wet SOS nema se io. es setae nena 699

X. Collims. REPORT UPON THE OPERATIONS OF THE U.S. FISH COMMISSION SCHOONER GRAMPUS FROM JUNE 5, 1886, TO Marcu 15, 1887. By Capt. J. W. Collins. _ One

PAO ey SDECIAN INDEX. «ou cce abou aenine nee Case soot ans socdeebens cach awonemeeeeeees 70] XI. Wiather. REPORT OF OPERATIONS AT COLD SPRING Hannon, NEW YORK, DURING

‘THE, AKASON, OFV1886.. | By Mred Mather: 222.2. --senca bac. sesso eascecesee oe caret 721 XT. Clark. REPORT OF OPERATIONS AT THE MICHIGAN STATIONS OF THE U. S. FIsu

COMMISSION FOR THE YEAR 1886-’87. By Frank N. Clark.-.........--.--.--.------ 729

XIII. Stome. REPORT OF OPERATIONS AT THE UNITED STATES SALMON AND TROUT STATIONS ON THE MCCLOUD RIVER, CALIFORNIA, FOR THE YEARS 1885-'87. By Liv-

DUES UM UO Ole. ate Rabe aa as caeh aa scan ac a aaas a paiee oe ain scoe sr asee aueew'ecuebasete 737 XIV. Atkins. REPORT ON THE PROPAGATION OF PENOBSCOT SALMON IN 1886-’87, By CHATS Gre AtKINS 2 fete ane ests a scijansecinuat eee aetesidaasie tty see sali sae cena Sets 747

XV. Atkins. REPORT ON THE PROPAGATION OF SCHOODIC SALMON AT GRAND LAKE STREAM, MAINE, IN 1886-’87. By Charles G. Atkins

XVI. Ravenel. REporr OF OPERATIONS AT BATTERY STATION, HAVRE DE GRACE, MD., FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1886. By W. de C. Ravenel..........-..-.---

XVII. Ravenel. REPORT OF OPERATIONS AT SAINT JEROME OYSTER-BREEDING STATION FOR THE YEAR 1886. By W.de C. Ravenel...........2.-----+.-------- Be aia a terse

XVIII. Carswell. ReEvorT ON THE ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION OF THE CODFISH AT WOOD'S HOutL, Mass., FOR THE SEASON OF 1885-'86. By James Carswell..........-.-------

XIX. Atkins. REPORT ON THE ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION OF CODFISH AT Woop’s HOLt, MASS., FOR THE SEASON OF 1886-87. By Charles G. Atkins.-...--..-.------------

XX. MecDonaid. REPORT OF OPERATIONS AT THE WYTHEVILLE STATION, VIRGINIA, FROM

JANUARY 1, 1885, TO JUNE 30, 1887. By Marshall McDonald. Six plates......... - 793 XXL. MeDonald. Revrorv OF SHAD DISTRIBUTION FOR THE SEASON OF 1886. By Mar- ISPEVN Wa (led Da Pa caite | as oS ea A ek i ol AD ea eos) a a I, Bee ae aie Se je 801

XXII. Grabill. Revort oF OPERATIONS AT THE SHAD-HATCHING STATION ON BATTERY

IsLAND, NEAR HAVRE DE GRACE, MD,, DURING THE SEASON OF 1886. By L. R. Grabill...... JEST: qemu wee tae BOE Beet Sata er en ok ge es idea sa nteeeues 807

VI CONTENTS.

XXTIL. WicDonald. Report OF SHAD PROPAGATION ON THE POTOMAC RIVER DURING THE BEASON OF 1886, By Marshall McDonald once coco coc accepnceenneetes >. seeeeee XXIV. Smith. Rreporr ON THE SHAD WORK OF THE STEAMER FISH HAWK DURING THE

SEASON OF 1886. By Mate James A. Smith, U.S. Navy, commanding..-.--.-.--.. XXYV. Smith. REPORT ON THE SHAD WORK OF THE STEAMER LOOKOUT DURING THE SEASON OF 1886. By Mate James A. Smith, U. S. Navy, commanding.......-.-..-

XXXVI. Wather. REPORT OF EGGS SHIPPED TO AND RECEIVED FROM FOREIGN, COUNTRIES AT THE CoLp Spring Harsor, NEW YORK STATION, DURING THE SEASON OF 1886-’87.

By red Mather...2 2s .ncavesteee bt cSt opener ee CORE eet eee see eee ar

XXVII. 'feDonald. ReEvoR’T OF DISTRIZUTION OF FISH AND EGGS BY THE U.S. Fisu Com- MISSION FROM JANUARY 1, 1886, TO JUNE 30, 1887. By Marshall MecDonald.....---

XXVIII. DISTRIBUTION OF DUPLICATE SETS OF MARINE INVERTEBRATES, 1879-1888. Special index....-. Bdetet ne R A sits einer tee acta af oece oe mites ee See ine’ apace ce

E.—MISCELLANEOUS.

XXIX. Smith, Lis? OF THE DREDGING STATIONS OF THE U. 8. Fis COMMISSION, THE U.S. CoasT SURVEY, AND THE BRITISH STEAMER CHALLENGER, IN NORTH AMERICAN

WATERS, FROM 1867 TO 1887, TOGETHER WITH THOSE OF THE PRINCIPAL EUROPEAN GOVERNMENT EXPEDITIONS IN THE ATLANTIC AND ARCTIC OCEANS. By Sanderson

Smith, Hive charts: io: .26 co! enc Se ce aeencnehnen vos sees aceon eee eee

XXX. Kostytscheff® CnEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FISH PRODUCTS, WITH SOME REMARKS ON THEIR NUTRITIVE VALUE. By Prof: P. Kostytscheti--_.-22--2.2-- --a-.eeeeeecas XXXII. Wiauriac. REVIEW OF CASES OF POISONING CAUSED BY SPOILED CODFISH, AND THE. UNNECESSARY PROHIBITION OF THE SALE OF REDDENED CODFIsH. By Dr. E. Mauriac. XXXII. Mizer. NOTES ON THE NORWEGIAN FISHERIES OF 1885. By A. N. Kiver .......---.

(GENERAL INDEX, 2 ccs awcien saint eho cca eet ACE Saueaceescupawecs we evant aantn cite pean

833

843

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE APPENDICES.

FLOUNDERS AND SOLES.*

Page. Fic. 1.—Atheresthes stomias. The Arrow-toothed Halibut.......-..-.-----------eseeeee= 336 2.—Platysomatichthys hippoglossoides The Greenland Halibut..-.-........-..-.-- 3 336 3.—Hippoglossus hipposlossug. The Halibut.-.....-......2..--220.---.----0020------ 336 4.—Hippoglossoides platessoides. The Sand Dab..........-...----.--..--------+---- 336 5.—Hippoglossoides elassodon. The Alaska Sand Dab.......-....------.e.-00 Sige te 336 6.—Psettichthys melanostictus. The San Francisco Sole..........-..-. wads sdecwisna 336 7.—Paralichthys lethostigma. The Southern Flounder...................---.-s00-0-- 336 8.—Paralichthys oblongus. The Four-spotted Flounder.............-.-.------------. 336 Sa10:—Plenronectus maximus. (ENer Der bO ties qseicde aoe caus sine on amaicinm scisinswinaasia as Hac 336 4 11.—Lepidopsetta bilineata. The California Sole.........-.----.------eseeeesenceseene 336 12 imanda. terrupines. Che) Rusty Dab.<----5. 4s -<cseecenene-sssccasecuceoensace 336 13: —himanda aspera. ‘The Alaska Rusty, Dab) 2. ou... 2icacessuasescecsaccecestasecoaa 336 14.—Pseudopleuronectes americanus. The Common Flatfish or © Winter Flounder...-. 336 iP latessa platessa. “Lhe; Places 2-5 -nae concn erases ces acces caemnce dense mamas 336 16.—Liopsetta putnami. The Eel-back Flounder.............--..---.-.---2+---------- 336 17.—Liopsetta glacialis. The Alaska Kel-back Flounder .........-......-..----------- 336 18.—Platichthys stellatus. The California Flounder...-..........-..--.--200--- see 336 19.—Glyptocephalus cynoglossus. The Craig Fluke................--..00-2+--------- 336 Bone ——sOlGa soles. | Dhe COMMON SOlG ra. << mendes Sata cas ciel esa olen aeqn|sniancoea aa see 336 22, 23.—Achirus fasciatus. The American Sole, or Hog-choker...............--.---- eiaante 336 SCLENIDA. (DRUMFISH.)t Fie. 1.—Cynoscion regale. The Weakfish, or Squeteague..........-.------2eeeccces vecnnn 446 2.—Cynoscion nebulosum. The Spotted Weakfish.-........--.....-..---00--eeeeene-s 446 3.—Bairdiella chrysura. The Mademoiselle, or Yellow-tail...............-..----0---- 446 4,—seiena ocellata, The Red Drum, or Channel Bass.) =:<c.scs.--+--0ecccuensesess< 446 a WONCAdOn RbearnSi, {Che RONCAMOL....fsssa-ces coe aceeasesaees sunk see ceeemeker. 446 6.—Leiostomus xanthurus. The Spot, Goody, Oldwife, or Lafayette:..... Soo cee obi 446 7-—Micropopon undulatus. ‘Che: Croaker: <0 s-bectese seen Sedesncos-aceaeecscaadeecs 446 8.—Menticirrhus americanus. The Carolina Whiting.......--...........----.2------ 446 9.—Menticirrhus saxatilis. The Kingfish, or Sea-mink............0.....20----0----- 446 TORS OC ONIAS Cromis., “The Drom’ 22 carcssaoc,7 aa auesataar dace Saad canes shee ee eee 446 12.--Aplodinotus grunniens. The Fresh-water Drum, or Gaspergou...........----.-- 446 ENTOZOA.}

PLATE I.—Dibothrium manubriforme, Dibothrium aluterz, and Echeneibothrium variabile,

US ELE Se Bes oe Oe Bere One Meee eee ea) Sens se meereen, 2 CE Ty eee 500 II.—Phyllobethrium thysanocephalum, and Spongiobothrium variabile, details of. -.. 502

I11.—Orygmatobothrium angustum, and Crossobothrium laciniatum, details of......-- 504

IV.—Calliobothrium verticillatum, Rhynchobothrium bisulcatum, and Phoreivboth- Mus; CetHls Oss vasecee sad b dckcelen ots ncdevacteseweldsouenssen see aoneene 506

V.—Echinorhynchus agilis, Echinorhynchus acus, Tenia dilatata, and saps bothrinm: tenuicolle; details) ofscjsc244sts-saet cas cen sce sets econ sete 508 ViI.—Echinorhynchus sagittifer, and Echinorhynchus proteus, details of..........-.- 510

* In Jordan and Goss’s Review of the Fleunders and Soles of America and Europe. t In Jordan and Eigenmann’s Review of the Sciw#nidw of America and Europe. {In Linton’s Notes on Entozoa of Marine Fishes of New England. VIL

Vill LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS MEDUSE.* Page HYG. (di—WViewor regantha from the'side....2eseaccues<csene Uconceeceewacweeeseeen aise ee mee 534 2.—View of Pegantha from the aboral region.......... sec Stiswbieewaen en eubhte ae saeee dota 534 FISH-CULTURE.t Fic, 1.—Method of supplying hatching-boxes with water at Neuhausen........-...--.-.------ 546 2.—Method of supplying hatching-boxes with water at Dachsen.-.......--...-.-...------- 547 6, —- AOE TOMER [os bide cub decroop toeede vedo caeds lente gene Jan aap ees tate eee eee meee 552 dr—weCuion of ZONK TrOUg Re «sno ss acca canes a= Hc aenane aes wens neesees Senet aoe eee 552 5.—Modification of California hatching-trough used at Seewiese, flat view..-..--.--.----- 553 6.—Modification of California hatching-trough used at Seewiese, upright view-.--.-..--. *~ 553 7.—Contrivance for protecting fish in tanks.................--...--- ania 025. enone ee eee 560 B:-—Mel-way at Nenhausen ¢.s2d.-2205-s2ce on. acute bee eae e bee eee mae sens eee ese eee 570 THE ALBATROSS.} PLATE I.—Plan of reported position of Hope Bank ...... omlein eiepia'es mpimne daa enn eee helnien gees 686 II.—The Tanner sounding-machine mounted on steam-cutzer......--.-.------.------ 686 I1I.—Improvement in deep-sea sounding-machine .-........ 2.2222 ----- 22+ eneneeneenee 686 TV.—The Tanner improved thermometer-case2.2.. <2-<-ce=5 bedwen vsruine sateen ee emenee 686 We—Counter-balance wheels 2.2225 c's cciec scsi eneevee sbiserdesaisaneneha accu. caer eee 686 Wil Baird sy PNeUMALIC INGICHOL see on ect-m nen ease Sees emcee eles meee attogeeee 686 VII.—Blower for the Baird pneumatic indicator.........-. cacsewecasbotings meCeemeees 686 Vilit.—baird’s automatic steam-trap 26-2... sc ieckeacahs sbicasseeauenbeeeeeea ee eee _ 686 TX.\-ks—Proposed NOw Doers: -.5 22. 5!can/o amo ks aseemee nee ecko eab Reman see eee eee 686 THE GRAMPUS.$ PLATE I.—Tze U.S. Fish Commission schooner Grampus-.....c0+--+-- éwcncus Jape Wome 701 WYTHEVILLE STATION.||

PLATE L— Water supply and ponds for brood fish->-....--..-2---ceaesseacesceesee eeeene eee 800 IW —General view of buildings’ and grounds) 2225.-o soc. eecac scenes «esceeceereee epee 800 TLY.— Pian of hatchery, first'tloor..-.-. 2. 2.-cec2- -keee ede emctaas eet aa: 800 EVi—Plan ‘of hatchery, Second oor. --..=+<c/.<\\oancsiaesccnedouents ee ele eee a oat eeeee 800 V.—View of interior, showing details of eqnipment...........-. 20220-2202 --- sense eee 800 Vie-—General View Ot pondsx.52.--05< . sna sccehe tasgaraceaeooseek here Ae eee eee 800

DREDGING STATIONS.

No. 1.—Chart showing tie positions of tie dredgings made by the U.S. Fish Commission in the Gulf of Maine, Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays, and in Vineyard and Nantucket Sounds and adjacent waters from 1871 to 1887 2.—Uhart showing the positions of thedredgings made by the U.S. Fish Commission’ in Long Island, Vineyard, and Nantucket Sounds and adjacent waters from 1871 to 1887 ..... - 1018 8.—Chart showing the positions of the dredgings made by the U.S. Fish Commission in the Atlantic Ocean from 1871 to November, 1887, including also the deep-sea dredgings of

the U.S. Coast Survey and the British steamer Challenger in the region mapped ..... 1018 4.—Chart showing positions of all the dredgings made by the U.S. Fish Commission and the U.S. Coast Survey in the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent parts of the Atlantic Ocean and

Garibbpan Sep from 1867 to November, 1887 -2.s-- 2. eee paces coens pceescae eee 1018

5.—Chart showing the positions of all the dredgings made by the U.S. Fish Commission, U. 5. Coast Survey, and the British steamer Challenger in the Caribbean Sea and adjacent parts of the Atlantic Ocean from 1867 to November, 1887

*In Fewkes’ Report on Medusx from the Gulf Stream.

tin Drs. Bettoni and Vinciguerra’s Notes on the Fish-cultural Establishments of Central Europe. {In Tanner’s Report on Work of the Albatross.

§ In Collins’ Report on Operations of Grampus.

|| In MeDonald's Report of Operations at Wytheville Station, Va.

{i In Sanderson Smith's List of Dredging Stations in the North Atlantic.

ee ee ee eee

——

REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER.

1.—INTRODUCTORY NOTE.

During the period of time covered by this report the work of the United States Fish Commission was under the direction of Prof. Spencer F. Baird. In consequence of his declining health and the pressure of ad- ministrative duties as Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, as well as Commissioner of Fisheries, the preparation of a report proper to accompany the various reports and papers constituting the appendix was prevented.

The following digest of the operations of the year, which has been prepared from data compiled mainly by Mr. C. W. Smiley, editor, for the convenience of the Commissioner in the preparation of his annual report, aims to present briefly, from an impersonal standpoint, the prin- cipal features of interest in connection, with the work accomplished.

The personality of the distinguished naturalist who founded the United States Fish Commission, and under whose wise and broad ad- ministration it has grown to be the custodian and conservator of one of our most important food resources is, however, fitly represented by his important posthumous paper on the sea fisheries of eastern North America, which appears in the appendix. This monograph, after some introductory account of the fisheries, follows with a list of the food and bait fishes and invertebrates, together with biographical notices of the most important species. The food and the reproduction of the sea fishes, their migrations and movements, numbers and abundance, and the dangers and fatalities to which they are subject from enemies in the sea, from man, and through physical causes or changes are discussed at length. The important fishing grounds are described. in detail, as well as the apparatus of capture, from the primitive bow and arrow to the elaborate nets and pounds of the present time. The various kinds of bait, the methods of preserving fish and bait, and the disposition of offal are considered. The statistics of the value of the American fisheries are given, and followed by a review of the economical ap- plications of the products of the fisheries as food for man and animals, and for use in the arts and ‘industries in the form of oils, fertilizers, medicines, etc. The maintenance and improvement of the fisheries by legislation, artificial propagation, and the transfer of species from one region to another are subjects which receive the attention warranted by their importance. ; .

Ix

x REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES.

2.—INQUIRY RESPECTING FOOD-FISHES AND THE FISHING GROUNDS. A.—FIELD-WOR?r.

In this branch of inquiry field-work was carried on in a thorough manner along the Eastern coast of North America from the Straits of Florida to Newfoundland. From February 20 to May 10 the steamer Albatross, Lieut. Commander Z. L. Tanner, U. 8S. Navy, commanding, was engaged in a survey of the region about the Bahama Islands, in the joint interests of the Fish Commission and the Navy Department, the expenses of the cruise being shared by the two. The purpose of the voyage, on the part of the Fish Commission, was to ascertain, if possi- ble, the winter range and habits of certain important food-fishes, which resort to the Eastern coast of North America during the warmer months, but whose first appearance in the spring and whose abundance during the fishing season vary from year to year. The principal species con- cerning which information of this character was desired were the mack- erel, menhaden, and blnefish; but attention was also to be paid to other economic forms, such as the Spanish mackerel, sheepshead, and drum, if found to occur abundantly in those waters. On behalf of the Navy Department several lines of soundings were to be made to the north-

ward and eastward of the islands and in the deeper channels which

separate them, the hydrography of this important region being but little known. Mr. James E. Benedict was in charge of the civilian sci- entific staff, and was assisted by Mr. Thomas Lee, Mr. Charles H. Town- send, Mr. Willard Nye, jr., and Mr. F. L. Washburn, the two last men- tioned being volunteers.

The work of sounding was begun to the north of Great Abaco Isl- and, and was carried thence southeastward along the Atlantic side of

the islands as far as San Salvador or Watling’s Island, and offshore.

in some places to a distance of over 100 miles. The greatest depth of water discovered was 3,196 fathoms, in latitude 28° 34’ 42” north, longi- tude 76° 10/ 25” west, or about 110 miles northeast of Great Abaco. Several lines were run between the five islands lying at the mouth of Exuma Sound, namely, Cat Island, Long Island, Watling’s Island, Concepcion Island, and Rum Cay, showing that the intervening channels are of great depth, the depth in one place exceeding 2,400 fathoms. From this point the soundings were carried through Exuma Sound to its upper end, and thence by way of the open sea on the eastern side of Eleuthera Island to the town of Nassau, New Providence Island. Sub- sequently the work was continued through the Northeast and North- west Providence channels and the Tongue of Ocean. On the home- ward journey soundings were also made to the east and north of Great Abaco Island and Little Bahama Bank, and off the coast of the South- ern Atlantic States as far as Cape Hatteras. During these explora- tions one trip was made to Key West and Havana for the purpose of

REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. xI

obtaining coal and other supplies, giving opportunity for a limited amount of work in the Straits of Florida. The customary physical observations were made at all of the sounding stations, in order to de- termine the currents, temperatures, and densities of the water and the character of the bottom. The dredge, beam trawl, and tangles were also occasionally employed to ascertain the abundance of bottom life, but generally with poor results, the white coral ooze which predomi- nates in the deeper waters about the Bahama Islands being compara- tively barren and the shallower spots generally too rough for the suc- cessful working of the dredging appliances. Surface collecting in the samme region with the towing nets was equally unproductive, but by allowing the naturalists to land upon the islands and work along the shore very important results were obtained. The shore work was vig- orously pushed at every place where the steamer made a harbor, and parties of two were occasionally left upon the islands while the steamer continued its sounding operations in the neighboring region. The fish- eries which center at Nassau, including the important sponge fishery, were carefully studied, but no traces were found of the pelagic fishes, whose winter abode, it was thought, might bein this region. In the Straits of Florida and along the line of the Gulf Stream farther north the results of dredging were exceedingly rich.

From July 8 to October 28 the steamer Albatross was at work upon the offshore fishing grounds of Eastern North America, between New York and Newfoundland, with headquarters at Wood’s Holl, Mass. Mr. Benedict having resigned his position, Mr. Thomas Lee acted as chief naturalist during these explorations, and was assisted by Mr. Sanderson Smith. From July 15 to 18 a short trip was made to the outer edge of the submerged continental plateau south of Martha’s Vineyard, where the tilefish was formerly abundant. On August 2 the Albatross started east on a second cruise to the great cod and halli- but banks lying off the coasts of the British Provinces, the purpose of which was to study the character and resources of the banks in generai, and of those areas specially which are but little known; to search for new or reported banks, the existence or location of which was uncer- tain; and, partly in the interests of the Navy Department, to investi- gate certain reported dangers lying in the track of ocean steamers and fishing vessels. Diligent search was made for the mythical Hope Bank, supposed to be located south of Halifax, some distance off Le Have Bank; but although numerous soundings were made over a wide area inclosing its reported position, and thence to Sable Island Bank, no unusual inequalities in the bottom were discovered. A line of sound- ings was run between Banquereau and the Grand Bank to develop the contour of the intervening gulley in which halibut abound. Trials were made for codfish on the eastern part of Grand Bank, the eastern edge of which was found to be incorrectly represented on the published charts. Fruitless search was made for a reported bank of great promise

XII REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES.

to the fishermen, which was supposed to be located about 200 miles east of the Grand Bank in about 45° north latitude. Soundings were made from this point to the Flemish Cap, which was partly explored, and thence to the northeastern edge of the Grand Bank. St. John’s, New- foundland, was then visited for supplies, giving the naturalists an op- portunity to study some important salmon streams, the steamer start- ing homeward from this place on August 21. During the trip to the westward the explorations were continued off the southern end of Green and St. Pierre Banks, between the latter bank and Banquereau, across Banquereau and Sable Island Bank, past the reported position of Hope Bank, and thence along the edge of George’s Bank to Vineyard Sound, the steamer arriving at Wood’s Holl August 29. Subsequently two trips were made to the deep-water area lying between latitude 36° 30’ and 39° north, and longitude 70° and 74° 33’ west.

The steamer Fish Hawk was engaged but little in this branch of in- quiry during 1886. In August a few of the light-ships at which tem- perature observations are taken for the Commission were visited, and the keepers instructed as to the proper methods of immersing and reading the thermometers, especially during extremes of temperature. In October a few casts of the beam trawl were made in the region off Sandy Hook, N. J., where specimens of the English sole had been planted several years before, but without finding any trace of them.

The schooner Grampus, Capt. J. W. Collins commanding, made many important investigations respecting the fishing grounds and food-fishes off the New England and adjacent coasts, but these were mostly under- taken in the interest of fish culture. In August, a cruise was made to the tilefish grounds south of Martha’s Vineyard, and six days were spent in fishing with cod trawls and hand lines in depths of from 60 to 160 fathoms, over an area about 120 milesin length. Only a few fish, mostly hake, were captured. From September 22 to October 9 the Grampus was engaged in an attempt to carry living specimens of halibut from the fishing grounds to Wood’s Holl, for the purpose of securing their spawn in suitable condition for hatching. Fishing for this species was mainly carried on off Le Have Bank, in depths of 200 to 300 fathoms. A number of halibut were taken and transferred to the schooner’s well, apparently without receiving serious injury from the hooks or subsequent handling. None of them lived, however, more than thirty- six hours, and the conclusion was reached that the fish could not sur- vive the great change of temperature and pressure incident to their transfer from deep water to the surface. As it was probable, how- ever, that halibut taken in shallow water could be successfully trans- ported, a search was made for them in other localities, but none were found. With other species less difficulty was encountered. On this and the previous cruise, Mr.. Raymond L. Newcomb acted as natur- alist, and Mr. James Carswell accompanied the Grampus as fish cult- urist, in the search for halibut. During most of the remainder of the

Ne eee

REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XIII

year the Grampus continued her fishing trips in Massachusetts Bay and off Cape Ann, carrying several cargoes of live fish, principally cod, in good condition, to the Wood’s Holl station.

In December, Mr. Charles H. Townsend, an assistant of the Com- mission, was sent to the western part of the Caribbean Sea for the pur- pose of studying the fisheries of that region in the interests of the American fishermen. .One of the objects of his trip was to ascertain if that region was to any extent the winter home of pelagic fishes which resort to the eastern coast of the United States in summer. His work extended into 1887. Free transportation as far as Swan Island was furnished by Mr. J. M. Glidden, president of the Pacific Guano Company.

The Wood’s Holl station was occupied in the interests of scientific inquiry from early in July until the middle of October, becoming dur- ing this period the headquarters for the steamer Albatross. The Com- missioner, Professor Baird, was in attendance during the entire season, and personally directed the work as in previous years. Prof. A. E. Verrill was in charge of the laboratory, assisted by Mr. Richard Rath- bun. The regular force of workers in the biological laboratory was constituted as follows: Prof. S. I. Smith, of Yale College; Prof. John A. Ryder, of Washington; Mr. Sanderson Smith, of New York; Prof. Leslie A. Lee, of Bowdoin College; Prof. Edwin Linton, of Washing- ton and Jefferson College; Prof. B. F. Koons, of the Storr’s A gricult- ural School; Mr. J. H. Blake, of Cambridge, as artist; Mr. Peter Parker, jr., of Washington; Miss K. J. Bush, and Miss. C. E. Bush, assistants of Professor Verrrill; and Mr. A. H. Baldwin and Miss M. J. Rathbun, assistants in the National Museum. The chemical and phys- ical laboratory was in charge of Dr. J. H. Kidder, and the aquaria were managed by Mr. William P. Seal, of Philadelphia. Tables in the bio- logical laboratory were also occupied by the following college repre- sentatives: Prof.S. I’. Clarke, of Williams College; Prof. E. B. Wilson, of Bryn Mawr College, and Dr. A. 'T. Bruce, of Johns Hopkins Uni- versity. Mr. Vinal N. Edwards, a permanent observer and collector for the Fish Commission in the Vineyard Sound region, worked in con- junction with the summer party, and assisted it in various ways.

Although acting as superintendent of the station during the summer, Professor Ryder was able to devote much time to the problems of lob- ster and oyster culture, which were then being carried on, especially with reference to the care and rearing of the young. During the spring hatching season for cod and lobsters he also made elaborate studies of the development of those two species from their earliest stages. The other naturalists were mostly engaged in preserving, assorting, and studying the large collections brought in by the steamer Albatross from its several cruises to the fishing grounds. Much field _ work was also done in the neighboring region, in continuance of the investigations of former years, for the purpose of obtaining informa-

XIV REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES.

tion respecting the times of occurrence, the abundance, life histories, habits, diseases, parasites, etc., of the useful fishes and marine inverte- brates. The Roosen process of preserving fresh fish, which has at- tracted much attention in Europe, was given several trials, with the expectation of finding it adapted to the preservation of bait for the offshore fishing vessels, a problem of unusual importance at the pres- ent time. It proved to be entirely unsuited to this purpose, however, the fish placed in it becoming too soft either for bait or for food, though generally free from the offensive odors of decomposition. Many large aquaria were added to the equipment of the lower floor of the labora- tory and fish-hatching building, and under Mr. Seal’s arrangements gave excellent opportunities to observe the habits of even large-sized fishes, of which an abundant supply for that purpose was always kept on hand. During the hatching season it was intended that these aqua- ria should be used for the temporary storage of the fry.

B.—SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS.

Temperatures and densities—One of the most important scientific problems before the Fish Commission has been the determination of the temperature and density of the water along the sea-coasts and in all inland lakes and rivers which afford valuable fisheries, or might be suited to that purpose. The object in studying these physical charac- teristics is at least twofold: First, to ascertain the influence of tem- perature and density on the movements of those migratory fishes which form so large a proportion of the fishery production of the country, and the appearance and abundance of which during any fishing season may possibly, in a measure, be predicted by a thorough knowledge of the physical conditions essential to their well-being; second, to fur- nish a guide in the transplanting of fishes and the stocking of any region with the species most likely to survive and propagate. General results are not so important or so applicable to this study as special series of observations continued from year to year. In the furtherance of this object, observations of temperature, and where expedient de- terminations of density, were made at all of the stations of the Com- mission during the entire year, or while operations were in progress. The same observations were made with great care by the vessels of the Commission, whether in port or cruising, and generally at intervals of one hour. The bottom and serial temperatures, and other physical data obtained by the steamer Albatross, on the fishing banks and in deep water, are of special value in the same connection. The most important continuous series of surface temperatures, however, are those taken for the Commission by employés of the Light-House Board. and Signal Service along both sea-boards of the United States, at several stations on the Great Lakes, and upon some of the most important shad and salmon rivers on both sides of the continent. This co-opera- tion between the two bureaus just mentioned and the Fish Commission

REPORT OF COMMISSIONER OF FISH AND FISHERIES. XV

has continued for many years, and has resulted in the accumulation of a large amount of valuable information. During 1886, these observa- tions were carried on at thirty-six light-ships and light-houses, and at forty-eight stations of the Signal Service.

Rusty mackerel.—The rusting of mackerel, which sometimes occurs when, through the leaking out of the brine in which they are preserved in barrels, they are left more or less exposed to the air, has been a source of frequent loss to the fish dealers. The character and precise cause of this peculiar change being unknown, specimens of rusty mack- erel were obtained during the year and submitted to Prof. W. O. At- water, of Middletown, Conn., for examination. His report upon the subject has not yet been received.

Disease among trout.—The investigations by Prof. S. A. Forbes, of Illinois, of specimens of trout from Baird Station, Cal., affected by a disease hitherto unknown in that region, proves that the disease is identical with that found among the herring in Madison Lakes, Wiscon- sin, where it was very wide spread and destructive in 1884. Mr. Forbes’s report will be found in the account of McCloud River station, by Liv- ingston Stone.

C.—PREPARATION OF REPORTS, ETC.

The study of materials and the reduction and compilation of observa- tions made by the field parties, including the preparation of reports upon the same, was continued during the year at the Washington and Wood’s Holl stations of the Commission and at many college labora- tories. As heretofore this class of work was done mostly by volunteers, among whom are some of the most accomplished naturalists of the country. Prof. A. E. Verrill has had general charge of the collections of marine invertebrates obtained along the Eastern coast, north of Cape Hatteras, which he